RELATIONSHIP

Brothers From The Same Father – Y Chromosome Testing

Brothers From The Same Father – Y Chromosome Testing

You can see how a Father’s Y chromosome is passed down to his sons. Because men have only 1 Y chromosome (and woman have none), means that 2 brothers will always have the exact same Y chromosome if they have the same biological father, or else if they are related via their paternal line.

To test to see if the Y chromosomes are identical, we use modern DNA analysis techniques to pin-point many specific areas of the Y DNA in each brother.Each specific area we investigate is different between unrelated persons, so by testing multiple areas the odds are extremely high that only related persons will match in every area we test.

Note: Remember that 2 men with the same Y may not be brothers…they could be father-son, uncle-nephew, cousins, etc. Having the same Y means you have the same male lineage (same male ancestor). So, keep that point in mind for Y DNA tests. It does also mean the Y test can be used for many other relationship tests.

Cost R2500.00pp

Brothers From The Same Mother – mDNA test

Brothers From The Same Mother – mDNA test

If you wish to test brothers to find if they have the same biological mother, then we need to perform a Mitochondrial DNA test.

Mitochondrial DNA is only passed from Mother to child, not from Father to child, so siblings with the same mother all have the exact same Mitochondrial DNA sequence.

Cost R2500.00pp

Sisters With The Same Father – Paternal X

Sisters With The Same Father – Paternal X

Women have two X-chromosomes, while men have only one X chromosome. Therefore a Father and his 2 Daughters will all have at least one of their X-chromosomes exactly the same (the X from their father).

X chromosome testing is used to see if two or more female persons have the same biological father.

If the two or more female persons share the same mother, we require a sample from the mother to be included in the testing, but it is included in the testing cost.

X-chromosome testing is another unique scientific offering from DNA SOLUTIONS laboratories. DNA SOLUTIONS, the company that created the home DNA test kits and high loci-super accurate paternity testing, now has a system to test a high number of specific points on the X chromosome of each person.

Cost R2500.00pp

Sisters With The Same Mother – Maternal X

Sisters With The Same Mother – Maternal X

Mitochondrial DNA is a type of DNA that is only passed from Mothers to their children. While men also have mitochondrial DNA, they do not pass it down to their children (since sperm to not contain mitochondrial DNA).

Cost R2500.00pp

Brother And Sister With The Same Mother - mDNA

Brother And Sister With The Same Mother - mDNA

Mitochondrial DNA is only passed from mother to children. So all siblings to the same mother will have the exact same mitochondrial DNA.

Since in a fertilised egg only the mother’s mitochondrial DNA is present we can find the exact same mitochondrial DNA in all children to the same mother. Daughters will continue to pass the same mitochondrial DNA down to their children, while men will never pass on their mitochondrial DNA.

Thus mitochondrial DNA testing is a very powerful and accurate way to test for biological siblings. Mitochondrial testing is currently used by military DNA laboratories to identify skeletons discovered in old war zones, by tracing the mitochondrial DNA back to living relatives.

Cost R2500.00pp

Grandfather Related To Grandson – Y

Grandfather Related To Grandson – Y

All men have one Y chromosome which is passed down, generation to generation through their son’s. If a Grandfather and a Grandson have the exact same Y chromosome, it supports them having the same male ancestry (being related).

Because the Y chromosome DNA needs to be exactly the same to support a positive relationship result, the test is highly accurate, above 99.9%.

Cost R2500.00pp

Grandmother Related To Granddaughter - X

Grandmother Related To Granddaughter - X

All males have one X-chromosome that they have received from their Mother. Subsequently, this single maternal X chromosome is passed from fathers to daughters. (Son’s receive a Y chromosome from their fathers).

So, by testing the two X chromosomes in a grandmother, and the two X chromosomes in the granddaughter, we can determine if they are biologically related by finding if they both have one X chromosome exactly the same.

Cost R2500.00pp

Brother And Sister With Same Father - DNA Loci

Brother And Sister With Same Father - DNA Loci

A brother to sister (sibling to sibling DNA Test) works by testing a very large number of different DNA points (known as loci) in each person. Full siblings share a lot more DNA in common than do unrelated persons, and also, half siblings share more DNA in common than unrelated persons, but not as much as full siblings. So this test looks at the amount of DNA sharing and uses DNA statistics to evaluate the amount of DNA sharing to deduce biological relationship.

Because we are evaluating the amount of DNA sharing, it is helpful to have DNA from any parents or other siblings of the persons being tested, since that drastically helps the evaluation process by allowing us to pin-point exactly which DNA is more likely to have come from each sisters Father in particular.

Cost R2500.00pp

Twin Zygosity Testing

Twin Zygosity Testing

We can DNA profile both twins to see if they have the exact same DNA profile, being identical twins, or if they each have their own DNA profile, as with non-identical twins and siblings.

Semi-identical twins is a new discovery to science, and we have the ability to also test for these types of twins. To test for Semi-identical twins we need to analyse the DNA from both twins and both the parents.

Cost R2500.00pp

Identical Twins

Identical Twins

Identical twins occur when a single fertilized egg splits sometime within the first few days after fertilisation. This accounts for around 30% of twins. When the young embryo splits, each half takes the exact same DNA, so identical twins have exactly the same genetic makeup.

Cost R2500.00pp

Non-Identical Twins

Non-Identical Twins

Non-identical or fraternal twins are created by two separate eggs and two separate sperm that are fertilised during the mother’s same menstrual cycle. These types of twins share half their genetic information and are no more or less similar than normal siblings.

Cost R2500.00pp

Semi-Identical Twins

Semi-Identical Twins

Semi-identical twins occur when two sperm fertilize a single egg. This egg then splits to form twins which each have identical DNA from their mother, but different DNA from their father. To test for semi-identical twins, DNA from both parents is required.

Cost R2500.00pp